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Anemia – Diagnosis & Treatment (Explained)

Anemia - Diagnosis & Treatment (Explained)
Anemia Symptoms and Treatment

Hello, I am Navjeet Noor, In this article, we will talking about Anemia which is now most common in children and females.

Introduction of Anemia ( Health & Fitness )

It is a blood disorder, in which the volume of red blood cells and the concentration of hemoglobin is reduced. The decrease in the number of RBCs or less than the normal volume of hemoglobin, this condition is called Anemia.

We all know that the tissues of the body require a regular supply of oxygen. The red blood cells contain hemoglobin, pass the oxygen to the whole body. The lifetime of red blood cells in our body is 120 days. When these cells are destroyed the main component iron is moved back to the bone marrow and this iron is used in the production of new red blood cells. It occurs when the formation of red blood cells is slow down or heavy bleeding due to any injury resulting in iron loss.

Classification

It is a condition that causes life-threatening complicationsThere are more than 400 classes of anemia are identified. Some kinds are very rare.

The two major types of anemia

1. Based on etiology

2. Based on morphology

 Based on Etiology

Microcytic Anemia- In this, the abnormal small red blood cells present in both iron deficiency anemia and non-iron deficiency anemia.                              

Normocytic anemia- In this class, it occurs due to blood loss and bone marrow failure. But the RBCs are normal in shape.

Macrocytic Anemia- When the red blood cells are abnormally enlarged in the shape. This actually occurs due to the deficiency of folic acid and vitamin B12. 

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Read Guidelines for Iron Supplymt for treatment of AnemiaClick here

Based on Morphology

Due to blood loss- Chronic posthemorrhagic anemia

Due to the impairment of red blood cell creation- Iron deficiency anemia, Aplastic anemia, due to liver disorder, Anemia due to the kidney infection, multiple myeloma, sickle cell anemia, 

Due to increased red blood cell disruption- Thalassemia and infectious mononucleosis.

Signs and Symptoms

Nervous symptoms – Dizziness, Fatigue, Fainting, and Headedness.

Heart (Cardiac symptoms) – Increase in heart rate, Loe blood pressure readings, Palpitation, Chest pain.

Gastric intestinal symptoms – Epigastric pain, Poor epitate, and change in bowel habit.

Mouth– Smooth tongue

Eyes– Retinal hemorrhage, blurry vision.

Skin – Swallow skin, lack of color of eyelids lining.

Some other symptoms are Memory loss, inability to concentrate, insomnia, dry nails, rapid breathing, sores in mouth, throat, and rectum, sweating, swelling in feet and hands, rinning in the ears, usually slick feeling of tongue, feet, confusion, tingling in hands, desire for ice, etc.

Diagnosis

History – Personal and family history may ascertain the types of anemia. Medications and. Daily diet history also helps to determine the anemia.

Physical Examination – Inspection of eyes and skin.

Hemoglobin Estimation- If in the RBCs the hemoglobin level is below the normal range for particulate age and sex the person with these conditions is said to be anemic.

Peripheral Blood Film Examination– This examination is most helpful in the diagnosis. In the examination of a stained peripheral blood smear, we can find the following abnormalities-

1. Variation in size of Red blood cells

2. Variation in the shape of Red blood cells

3. Inadequate Hemoglobin content

Leucocytes and Platelet Count – This counting is very helpful to determine the exact class of anemia. 

Bone marrow Examination – The cellular condition within the marrow also helps in the diagnosis. X-ray and bone marrow examination identify the source of bleeding.

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Treatment of Anemia

When it occurs due to nutritional inefficiencies, can be treated at the home with iron oral tablets and injections of vitamin B12. Oral folic acid tablets are used in the treatment of folic acid anemia. Vitamin C tablets are used to treat Vitamin C deficiency anemia. 

For Sickle Cell Anemia – In the treatment of sickle cell anemia it is necessary to examine the eyes regularly, immunization for many infectious diseases and pneumonia. But it can’t be cured properly.

For Aplastic Anemia- Blood transfusion is the treatment given to the aplastic anemic. Bone marrow transplant is also used to treat aplastic anemia.

For Hemolytic Anemia- There is no permanent treatment for hemolytic anemia. if the surgery is unsuccessful immune- system suppressants are prescribed to the anemic patient. 

Self-care-  Only food is a good source of all nutrients such as- broccoli, dried fruits, dried beans, potatoes, tomatoes, rice, shellfish, spinach, and almonds. we can treat anemia with balance our diet. Diet includes vitamins, iron, and minerals. 

Medical prognosis

Sickle cell anemia– According to medical research, there is no permanent treatment for sickle cell anemia that’s why it can’t be cured. 

Aplastic Anemia– This type can be cured by a bone marrow transplant. if this condition occurs due to the suppressive drugs it can be treated by discontinued the drug.

Folic acid and Iron deficiency anemia- This anemic condition can be treated in 2-3 weeks. Diet supplements can be en for 6 months for permanent treatment. 

Prevention- We can prevent this by avoiding the excessive consumption of alcohol, by eating a balanced diet and multivitamin tablets are also helpful in the prevention of this blood disorder.

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